Implementation issues are discussed, and this model is shown to have significant performance advantages in persistent, parallel, distributed and multilingual processing environments. This model also provides insight into the "type equivalence" problem of Algol-68, Pascal and Ada.
The most intuitive notion of object identity is offered by simple Smalltalk implementations in which "everything is a pointer". In these systems, an "object" is a sequence of locations in memory, and all "values" are homogeneously implemented as addresses (pointers) of such "objects". There are several serious problems with this model. First, "objects" in two different locations may have the same bit pattern both representing the integer "9"; an implementation must either make sure that copies like this cannot happen, or fix the equality comparison to dereference the pointers in this case. Second, the "everything is a pointer" model often entails an "everything is heap-allocated" policy, with its attendant overheads; an efficient implementation might wish to manage small fixed-size "things" like complex floating point numbers directly, rather than through pointers. Third, read access to the bits of an object may become a bottleneck in a multiprocessor environment due to locking and memory contention, even when the object is functional/immutable and could be transparently copied. In light of these problems, we seek a more efficient and less implementation-dependent notion of object identity than that of an address in a random-access computer memory.
A more efficient, but also more confusing, notion of object identity is offered by languages such as Pascal, Ada and C. These languages can be more efficient because they directly manipulate values other than pointers. This efficiency is gained, however, at the cost of an implementation-dependent notion of object identity. To a first approximation, a value in these languages is a fixed-length configuration of bits which can be manipulated directly, while an object is a configuration of bits which is manipulated through a pointer. The restriction on values to have only fixed lengths known to the compiler eliminates the possibility of variable-length functional/immutable values--e.g., character strings whose length cannot be determined at compile time; such values must be first-class (side-effectable) "objects" manipulated through pointers. The storage allocation and potential dangling reference problems of pointers cause these languages great uneasiness, however. Ada's paranoia about pointers leads to its bizarre and error-prone "in out" parameter passing, which it uses in preference to "by-reference" parameter passing, but whose semantics do not preserve object identity. The copying implicit in Ada's "in out" parameter passing can be characterized as a clumsy attempt at a software "cache coherency protocol", but it fails to provide the desired transparency.
We call the problem of providing clean, efficient semantics for "object identity" the object identity crisis, because the costs of full object identity in persistent, parallel and distributed systems are far greater than in serial, single-process systems. We will argue that the notions of "object identity" and "distinguishable by side-effects/assignment" are equivalent, and that applying this equivalence provides cleaner semantics for argument-passing, result-returning, and the built-in "equality" predicate of a programming language. Our model solves the problem of integrating functional (immutable) objects (e.g., numbers, strings) with non-functional objects by providing all objects with "object identity", but without the usual costs of full object status. This model of object identity also offers an interesting insight into the problem of "type equivalence".
Most of our examples and discussions will center on Common Lisp, because Common Lisp exhibits the wide range of issues we are trying to resolve, Lisp has a well-known, trivial syntax, Lisp has a universal type, and Lisp is intuitively defined in Lisp itself in a "meta-circular" manner. These properties allow the issues to be discussed with a minimum of extraneous detail. Our model is easily transported, however, to any other language in which object identity must be defined.
Distinguishing objects can be done in several ways, with the "true" notion of object identity achieved through the finest distinction. Many programming languages provide a primitive equality predicate which can be used to distinguish objects. For example, most "systems programming" languages such as C or Ada compare simple objects like fixed-precision integers and characters for bit-representation equality, and pointers for location equality. As we will show, however, these predicates are often unreliable, in the sense that they sometimes make distinctions that are not otherwise visible, they sometimes fail to distinguish distinct objects, and they sometimes just plain fail. A more reliable, but more expensive, test for identity is "operational equivalence" [Rees86], invented by Morris [Morris68] and popularized by Plotkin [Plotkin75]; the Scheme Report defines operational equivalence as follows:
Two objects are "operationally equivalent" if and only if there is no way that they can be distinguished, using ... primitives other than [equality primitives]. It is guaranteed that objects maintain their operational identity despite being named by variables or fetched from or stored into data structures. [Rees86,6.2]This description of "operational identity" given above incorporates some of the most basic notions of "object identity":
Lisp is the first major computer language to provide "object identity". A Lisp
list can have the same elements in the same order, but it is not necessarily
the "same" list. The built-in Lisp predicate EQ can be used to make
this distinction, but the distinction can be more reliably drawn in an
operational fashion using update semantics for determining object identity.
Consider the following operational definition of EQ for cons cells:
(defun eq-cons (x y)
(let ((oldcar (car x)))
(rplaca x 'private-symbol-for-eq-cons)
(prog1 (eq-symbol (car y) 'private-symbol-for-eq-cons)
(rplaca x oldcar))))
The experienced Lisp programmer may not have seen this particular pedagogical
definition of EQ, but side-effecting functions like NREVERSE
cannot be properly understood without this intuition.
A considerable amount of effort in beginning Lisp courses is devoted to providing the student a proper model for cons cells [Abelson85,3.3]. The two popular models are the "box-and-pointer diagrams" model introduced in [McCarthy60] and the linear-array-of-pointer-pairs model. Both of these models provide the correct operational semantics for EQ, because the CAR of a cell can be affected if and only if one applies RPLACA to "the" cons cell. Once these models are understood, EQ is a well-defined and natural predicate on mutable structured objects.
The Lisp predicate EQUAL greatly confuses the situation, however.
EQUAL tests for structural similarity rather than object identity, by
recursing on the CAR's and CDR's of the sub-expressions:
(defun equal (x y)
(or (and (atom x) (atom y) (eq-atom x y))
(and (equal (car x) (car y))
(equal (cdr x) (cdr y)))))
There are a several problems with EQUAL. First, it may diverge in the
presence of directed cycles (loops) in one of its arguments, although some
(e.g., [Pacini78]) have suggested more sophisticated predicates capable of
detecting such cycles. Secondly, it is not referentially transparent;
two calls to EQUAL on the "same" (i.e., EQ) arguments can
produce different results at different times. Neither of these possibilities
is to be desired in a programming language primitive equality test because we
would like such a test to always return and we would like object identity to be
Yet EQUAL is an extremely valuable operation, because the vast majority of Lisp lists are side-effect free--i.e., "pure". Without side-effects, loops cannot be constructed and sublists cannot be modified, and within these restrictions EQUAL becomes a well-defined and useful operation.
This tension between the simplicity of EQ and the usefulness of EQUAL has led to a great deal of confusion. This confusion has now lasted for 30 years, with additional confusion having been recently added by Common Lisp. Since neither EQ nor EQUAL has the desired semantics for the multiplicity of Common Lisp datatypes, Common Lisp added six more--EQL, EQUALP, =, CHAR=, STRING=, and STRING-EQUAL, yet these also lack the correct semantics. Scheme continues this confusion by offering the three predicates (eq?, eqv? and equal?) which are roughly equivalent to Common Lisp's EQ, EQL and EQUALP.
Why have so many different notions of equality been defined? We believe that this confusion has been caused by the tension between clean semantics and efficient execution. While every Lisp object can be provided with "object identity" by allocating a separate address for each number and character, such a Lisp is extremely slow because every arithmetic operation is accompanied by a memory allocation operation that is required to hold the new number. However, the overhead of providing every number with "object identity" seems silly when the typical number is itself smaller than an object pointer. This space overhead, combined with the time overhead for allocation and dereferencing, has led to modern Lisps wherein the bits for a number's representation are stored in pointer-like form, with no allocation or dereferencing necessary--e.g., Interlisp's inums [Teitelman74]. When represented in this "immediate" format, numbers can be compared with EQ, which typically performs a simple pointer comparison, instead of EQUAL, which would require dereferencing.
Unfortunately, not all numbers can be represented in such a compact format; e.g., "bignums"--extended precision integers--require the allocation of additional storage, and hence require the use of a true pointer in order to avoid manipulating variable-length objects. Rather than requiring a programmer to constantly test whether an integer is large or small before making the appropriate comparison, Common Lisp defines the EQL predicate, which dereferences numbers when necessary. Dereferencing when comparing numbers is consistent, however, because numbers are immutable objects whose components cannot be side-effected. Thus, two instances of a number can sometimes be distinguished using EQ when they are supposed to be the same number; EQ draws too fine a distinction in this case.
Strings provide more examples of EQ/EQUAL confusion. We would like to provide a primitive mechanism for comparing strings which treats each string as a whole, without requiring us to iterate through the individual string elements. In addition to the general usefulness of such a predicate, character strings and bit strings can often be compared more efficiently by considering the characters in groups rather than individually; this desire for efficiency usually results in this predicate becoming a primitive [Baker90b]. Common Lisp strings are instances of Common Lisp arrays, however, and hence their elements can be changed through assignment. By our operational definition of EQ given above, therefore, different strings are different, even when their spellings are currently the same.
Most strings, however, are constant--i.e., their spellings are never modified. The Common Lisp semantics which provide first-class object identity for strings means that storage allocation and dereferencing is always required, even when the strings are small and constant. In a distributed programming environment in which strings are incorporated into messages, the overhead of providing EQ-style object identity for strings can be extremely expensive. For this reason, Cedar [Swinehart86] offers the notion of "ropes", which are functional (immutable) strings, and hence can be copied at will. Unfortunately, neither Common Lisp nor Scheme has yet seen fit to provide for functional strings, although AutoLISP [Autodesk88] has only functional strings. Thus, strings are another datatype in which EQ is often too fine, and EQUAL is often too coarse.
The representation of numbers and strings are instances of a more generic functional representation problem. Whether functional objects are to be represented directly or as pointers is an implementation issue that should be hidden from the programmer. Therefore, such notions as "shallow equality" and "deep equality" [Atkinson89] are wrong-headed, because they allow implementation decisions to "leak through" to the programmer. For example, an object with a functional attribute might represent the attribute directly if it is small and if it belongs to a type which can be represented in a number of bits which can be fixed at compile time; alternatively, it could represent the attribute through a pointer to another functional object. Using shallow and deep equality predicates, however, the programmer could distinguish these representations, even though this distinction can only confuse him since the objects are functional.
Common Lisp hash tables and property lists present another important identity problem; an important use of hash tables is to give properties to non-symbols. The choice of the proper predicate to use (EQ, EQL, EQUAL, etc.) for the hash table/property list depends upon the kinds of objects to be used as keys: numbers should use EQL, while strings should use EQUAL. Hashing a number in an EQ-hash table will probably result in losing the property, because numbers which are EQL are not necessarily EQ; whether two numbers remain EQ over time is not guaranteed. Hashing a string into an EQUAL-hash table does not actually hash the string itself, but the functional contents of the string. If the implementation erroneously hashed the string itself, then a later modification of the string would cause the hash table code to crash or otherwise fail. Unfortunately, Common Lisp does not offer a single kind of hash table which will work uniformly and reliably on every object; such a hash table would be required for a generic "memoizing" function [Bird80]. We later define a predicate EGAL for the universal determination of object identity which can be used for such generic memoizing.
In the next section, we argue that neither EQ nor EQUAL is wrong; EQ is correct for mutable cons cells and EQUAL is correct for immutable cons cells. The major mistake of Lisp is in not distinguishing the two kinds of cons cells based on their mutability. Goto [Goto74] [Goto76] introduced this distinction, but for a different, although related, purpose.
Our model for object identity distinguishes mutable objects from immutable objects, and mutable components of aggregate objects from immutable components. We consider an immutable component of an object to be an integral part of the object's identity, since it cannot be separated from the object. Unlike a normalized (factored) relational database, which attempts to minimize the size of a "key" which holds the essence of an entity [Ullman80,s.5.4], we maximize the size of the object "key" to include all of its static components. Because these components are static, we cannot create any "update anomalies" with this policy. In particular, this object identity can be used as a key to a Common Lisp hash table [Steele90,p.435], and no hash entries will become inaccessible as a result of a key element being modified.
We will build up our definition of EGAL incrementally, starting from a
relatively simple base. An object is immutable if all of its
(top-level) components are immutable, otherwise it is mutable. Briefly,
if an object is mutable, then we compare it using an "address-like" comparison,
while if an object is immutable, then we recursively compare its components.
This recursion is only used to define the semantics of EGAL; a
given implementation may not need to recurse. For example, Goto's "hash
consing" [Goto74] [Goto76] allows functional lists to be compared without
recursion. Below is a first approximation to EGAL:
(defun egal (x y)
(and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y))
(cond ((symbolp x) (eq x y))
((numberp x) (egal-number x y))
((consp x) (eq x y))
((vectorp x) (egal-vector x y))
((functionp x) (egal-function x y))
((hash-table-p x) (egal-hashtable x y))
((streamp x) (egal-stream x y))
(eq x y))
(t (every #'(lambda (component)
(egal (funcall component x)
(funcall component y)))
(components (type-of x)))))))
(defun egal-number (x y) (and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y)) (cond ((complexp x) (and (egal-number (realpart x) (realpart y)) (egal-number (imagpart x) (imagpart y)))) ((rationalp x) (and (egal-number (numerator x) (numerator y)) (egal-number (denominator x) (denominator y)))) ((floatp x) (and (= (float-sign x) (float-sign y)) ; for IEEE-754 (= x y))) ((and (fixnump x) (fixnump y)) (eq x y)) ((and (bignump x) (bignump y)) (every #'eq (digits x) (digits y))) (t nil))))The use of strict equality "=" to compare two floating-point numbers is essential for object identity. In particular, the unfortunate tendency of some programming languages (e.g., APL) to include some sort of "fuzz" in the comparison of floating-point numbers is not acceptable. This is because such a fuzzy comparison is an analytic notion of closeness, and not an algebraic equivalence relation. In particular, fuzzy comparisons are not transitive. Since one of our goals is to preserve the semantics of table lookup, a fuzzy comparison would make such a notion ill-defined, because there may be several table keys which are sufficiently close to a test key. If a programmer or language designer wishes to have a fuzzy comparison, it should be a predicate distinct from the object identity predicate.
Common Lisp does not support user-defined objects analogous to bignums and
complex numbers, which would be EQL but not necessarily EQ;
EQUALP descends into structures regardless of mutability. Since none
of these equality predicates are CLOS generic functions [Steele90,ch.28], their
behavior cannot be overloaded by user-supplied methods. The above definition
for EGAL, however, allows the user to trivially define functional
rational and complex number types himself using defstruct as follows,
because EGAL will automatically recurse into the components of an
(:constructor complex (realpart &optional (imagpart 0))))
"Immutable (functional) complex numbers."
(realpart 0 :read-only t :type real)
(imagpart 0 :read-only t :type real))
(:constructor / (numerator denominator)))
"Immutable (functional) ratio numbers."
(numerator 0 :read-only t :type integer)
(denominator 1 :read-only t :type integer))
(defun egal-vector (x y) (cond ((and (mutable-vector-p x) (mutable-vector-p y)) (eq x y)) ((and (immutable-vector-p x) (immutable-vector-p y)) (and (= (length x) (length y)) (dotimes (i (length x) t) (unless (egal (aref x i) (aref y i)) (return nil))))) (t nil)))
True operational equivalence for function objects--even for simple
functions--is impossible to compute, because the equivalence of programs is
undecidable. Rather than "throw out the baby with the bath water" by refusing
to compare functions, however, we desire to compare function closures in the
same manner as the data structures that they may emulate. Consider the
following ("object-oriented") simulation of Lisp's cons cells:
(defun cons (x y)
#'(lambda (m &optional z)
(caseq m (car x)
(rplaca (setq x z) nil)
(rplacd (setq y z) nil))))
(defun car (c) (funcall c 'car))
(defun cdr (c) (funcall c 'cdr))
(defun rplaca (c x) (funcall c 'rplaca x))
(defun rplacd (c y) (funcall c 'rplacd y))
Since these simulated cons cells are mutable, we would like each of them to
have a separate object identity, since they can be distinguised through
mutations. Since "#'" ("FUNCTION") constructs a new
function-closure object, Common Lisp's EQ has the correct semantics
for this case. Consider, however, the simulation of immutable list
(defun functional-cons (x y)
(caseq m (car x)
(defun car (c) (funcall c 'car))
(defun cdr (c) (funcall c 'cdr))
These cons cells are "read-only", since there are no setq's to the
free variables in the closure. We desire the EGAL predicate to
perform correctly in this case, as well as in the mutable case above.
EGAL can only get the correct answer if closures themselves are
"functional" objects which allow EGAL to recursively examine their
structure. In the case of our functional cons, the closure consists of 3
elements: the code for the closure and the values of x and y.
If the components x and y are immutable, then the closure
itself is immutable, because the code pointer cannot be changed. We therefore
define EGAL on functions and function-closures as follows:
(defun egal-function (x y)
(and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y))
((simple-function-p x) (eq x y))
(and (egal-function (code x) (code y))
(egal-environment (env x) (env y))))))
This definition for EGAL will work properly on both versions of
cons because while the closure itself is in both cases immutable, the
environment in the mutable case will itself be mutable, while the environment
in the immutable case will be immutable. We have only succeeded in
transforming the equality problem of closures into the equality problem of
In order to understand how to compare environments, we must first look at their structure. An environment defines the values of the variables which are "free" in a "code" object. This definition can be in the form of an "association list", which is a list of pairs <variable-name,value>, which is searched to find the value, or the environment can be in the form of a vector which is indexed by an index number associated with each variable. Unfortunately, some language interpreters include in a closure environment values for variables which are not needed by the closure code. While these inclusions may cause excessive storage usage [Baker92a], they should not affect the course of the computation. We must therefore make sure that these extraneous values in closure environments do not affect the result of our equality comparison.
Extraneous values can be ignored in two ways: by making sure that the closures
are not constructed with extraneous values, or by modifying environment
comparison to ignore these extraneous values. Many Common Lisp compilers
implement closures without extraneous values, but many Common Lisp interpreters
implement closures with extraneous values. Since we do not allow compiled
closures to compare equal to interpreted closures, even when the compiled code
resulted from compiling the interpreted code, we do not have to worry about
comparing environments with incompatible structures. Furthermore, interpreted
closures can compare equal only if they have identical (i.e.,
EQ) code--no matter how it looks when printed. Therefore, the comparison of
interpreted environments has to be performed in the presence of a list of
"essential" (i.e., non-extraneous) values, as follows:
(defun egal-environment (vars x y)
(every #'(lambda (v) (egal (lookup v x) (lookup v y)))
But wait! It would seem that this definition of environment comparison would
allow EGAL to recurse on the comparison of our mutable cons cells as
defined above. However, this is not correct. To achieve the correct semantics
for mutable local variables which may be captured by closures, all Lisp systems
perform a program transformation equivalent to that we call "cell introduction"
[Sandewall74] [Kranz86]. Cell introduction provides for the binding of the
assignable free variables to an anonymous "cell" which is then read and written
instead of the variable itself. Below is the code for our mutable cell after
(defun cons (x y)
(let ((x (make-cell x))
(y (make-cell y)))
#'(lambda (m &optional z)
(caseq m (car (cell-value x))
(cdr (cell-value y))
(rplaca (setf (cell-value x) z) nil)
(rplacd (setf (cell-value y) z) nil)))))
As a result of cell introduction, the free variables x,y of
our closure are now bound to cells instead of directly to their initial values.
Thus, while EGAL on these environments will recurse down to the cell
level, it will stop there because cells are mutable. Thus, even though the
top-levels of closures created at different times will compare equal, the cells
created by make-cell at these different times will not compare equal,
so the semantics of EGAL are correct.
There remains a nagging problem with closure comparisons, however. The notion
of a "free variable" of a lambda-expression is not well-defined, because a
smart compiler may be able to eliminate all references to certain free
variables. Such an optimization may change the behavior of EGAL in a
way visible to the programmer if the closure becomes functional as a result of
the optimization. One approach would be to include a variable in the closure
if it appears free in the unoptimized source code, even if all of its
occurences are later optimized away. Another approach would be to have the
language provide a means for the programmer to declare which free variables he
would like included in the closure, and thus participate in the EGAL
comparison. An interpreter/compiler can easily check that this list is a
superset of the variables which are free in the (optimized) code. Such a
declaration was a necessity when Lisp variables were dynamically scoped, and is
a welcome documentation aid for any lambda-expression in a lexically scoped
Lisp. Below is shown one possible format for such a free variable declaration
in Common Lisp:
(declare (free a b c)) ; If a "free" declaration is given,
(list x a b)) ; every free var must be in the list.
The final problem for the equivalence of functions involves mutually
recursive functions. If the functions are known to the compiler to be
simple, then the recursion may be closed by the assembler or linking loader, in
which case EGAL will not be aware of the implicit recursive cycles.
On the other hand, if a nest of mutually recursive functions are created by
Common Lisp's LABELS (Scheme's letrec), then typical
implementations will create cyclic environment structures to handle the
recursion. Of course, cyclic environments are not required to implement
recursive functions if we use the "Y combinator" trick from the lambda calculus
[Gabriel88], as the factorial example below demonstrates.
(defun fact (f n) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (funcall f (- n 1)))))
(defun factorial (n) (fact #'fact n))
Since our environment structures must be functional and finite, mutual
recursion must therefore be implemented by means of the Y combinator shown for
factorial, or by means of cyles created with side-effectable cells. Let us
call the Y combinator method "pure" and the cyclic method "impure". Although
the functions created using the two methods are "applicationally equivalent",
their different natures can be distinguished by means of EGAL. Since
the majority of language implementations utilize side-effects and cycles, and
since it is difficult to hide the existence of the side-effectable cells used
in these cyclic environments--e.g. Scheme's letrec [Bawden88], it is
easier to use the impure method as the definition of mutual recursion.
We therefore define Common Lisp's recursive LABELS in terms of
non-recursive FLET, as follows:
(labels ((foo (x) << body of foo >>)
(bar (y z) << body of bar >>))
<< body of labels using foo and bar. >>) ; is defined by:
(let ((foo-cell nil)
(flet ((foo (x) (funcall foo-cell x))
(bar (y z) (funcall bar-cell y z)))
(setq foo-cell #'(lambda (x) << body of foo >>)
bar-cell #'(lambda (y z) << body of bar >>))
<< body of labels using foo and bar. >>))
A persistent, parallel and/or distributed object-oriented programming language
might want to offer both "pure" and "impure" mechanisms for implementing mutual
recursion, since their equivalence semantics would differ. The "impure"
mechanism would offer traditional semantics, while the "pure" mechanism would
exhibit functional behavior; this functional behavior being especially
important in the case where the programmer was lazy and the functions did not
actually call one another in a mutually recursive manner.
In summary, our model of equivalence for function closures is not based on "behavioral equivalence"--because that is undecidable--but on "representational equivalence". While "representational equivalence" provides a finer distinction than "operational equivalence", and may not provide all the equivalence we might like--e.g., equivalence under lexical variable "alpha-renaming"--we believe that "representational equivalence" provides an extremely useful extention of data structure equivalence into the realm of closures. Finally, "representational equivalence" does not prove embarrassing, since identity is constant and identical arguments to mathematical functions give identical results.
Even if a hash table restricted association pairs themselves to be immutable, the hash table itself would still be mutable because associations could be added or deleted. In this case, EGAL hash tables must still be identical.
The only case that would allow for consistent recursion into the structure of a hash table (as Common Lisp does with EQUALP [Steele90,p.108-109]) would be a constant (immutable) hash table, which represents a constant function with constant domain. In this case, the tables should be compared as extensional sets of association pairs, where the ordering of the association pairs is immaterial (as in EQUALP). A nonconstant function with constant domain could be simulated by such a constant hash table by binding each domain element to a different assignable cell.
The concept of a "lazy" hash table whose keys are not fully evaluated is discussed in the section on lazy values.
One can also conceive of unbuffered streams which are implemented as readable or writable memory locations in the manner of the "memory-mapped I/O" found in many microprocessors. For unbuffered output streams, the mutability is obvious due to the use of assignment to modify the contents of the "port". For unbuffered input streams, the "port" is read-only, but it is also volatile (i.e., incapable of being cached), meaning that it can change from reference to reference without ever being written. In both of these situations, the port should be considered a "mutable" cell, even if the mutating is being done by, or being noticed by, an external agent.
It might seem that cell introduction would change the semantics of our EGAL equality predicate. This is not the case, however. While EGAL may have to recurse an additional level through a component, EGAL always stops at a cell. While the immutable structure which holds the cells together may be replicated at some point during the computation (there is no way to tell), EGAL will always recurse through the structure to get to the cells. The creation of an object may involve the creation of several new cells, but because the object's backbone is immutable, these cells are bound together into the structure for life. Therefore any copies of the object's immutable backbone will still hold the "same" cells. These mutable cells of an object are thus the "carriers" of a mutable object's identity, because differences in objects of the same data type can only be determined by EGAL recursing down to the level of cells.
If cells are the carriers of a mutable object's identity in our model, then the only way to generate nonforgeable "object ID's"--i.e., "social security numbers"--for such mutable objects is to provide a dummy cell as part of an object's definition. Since independent mutability is the essence of identity in our model, this cell can be as small as a single bit, because identity can be distinguished by "dithering" this single bit. Trivial mutable objects of this kind can be used for unforgeable keys, because the only way one could have gotten such a key is by communicating with some object which already had it, since the generator of such objects is guaranteed to produce a new, never-before-seen (modulo garbage collection) object. Of course, if the object identity predicate does not diddle this bit, and if we do not attempt to garbage collect these keys, then the storage for the bit itself can be optimized away.
In the cell model, then, all objects have the form of finite trees in which all of the interior nodes are immutable and all of the leaves--which can be shared--are either cells or atomic constants. All objects are finite trees, because it is impossible to create infinite trees--i.e., directed cycles--without side-effects. Furthermore, none of the interior nodes share, or more accurately, some of the internal nodes may share, but this sharing cannot be detected through side-effects or through equality testing--i.e., the tree is not re-entrant. Thus in the cell model, EGAL always performs a finite tree comparison. This restriction to finite, acyclic objects has significant implications for type equivalence, discussed later.
There are occasions--e.g., for Interlisp "dump" files ("poor man's persistence"), and when debugging--where the preservation of true object identity would be welcome. Some sort of "social security number" is then required of every mutable object, and this number must be universal across all installations. Relational database systems which attempt to preserve object identity also require a similar "timestamp", or equivalent universal naming device. It should be clear that if every mutable object is uniquely tagged when performing an identity-preserving PRINT, the cost of dealing with mutable objects becomes substantially higher than the cost of dealing with immutable objects.
If an object is immutable, on the other hand, every copy is identical to the original, and there is no way to distinguish among them within the programming language. Copying is therefore well-defined, because it is the identity function, but useless as a standardized function because it does nothing. Therefore, the concept of a standardized copying operation is always useless at best, and highly misleading at worst. Perhaps this ambiguity is one reason why the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) [Steele90,s.28] has dispensed with default object copiers for each class.
An interesting situation occurs within a copying garbage collector. By definition, a copying garbage collector must preserve object identity, so the curious programmer can often find valuable insight into a programming language's notion of object identity by examining an implementation's garbage collector code. On the other hand, the collector's very copying seems to indicate a contradiction. This contradiction is resolved by the introduction of the notion of "forwarding pointers" [Baker78], which redirect object references from their original location to their new location so that the "same" object is referenced. Traditional copying garbage collectors leave forwarding pointers even for functional objects, but we have shown in this paper that forwarding pointers for functional objects are not necessary. In fact, we conjecture that 1) most recyclable garbage is functional in nature, and 2) substantial performance improvements in garbage collection algorithms can be obtained through clever optimizations for functional objects. For example, the "transitive size" of a functional object can be calculated incrementally as it is constructed, which allows any potential copier to dynamically and efficiently evaluate the trade-offs between copying and sharing. Furthermore, the reduction of the number of forwarding pointers can increase the "locality" (and hence efficiency) of a virtual memory copying garbage collector.
Obviously, the uncertainty in the time of evaluation of a Scheme delay can lead to non-determinism in a language offering side-effects, as Scheme does. However, an expression in a functional language, once evaluated, will always yield the same value on additional evaluations. Therefore, most lazy implementations cache this value into a "value cell", thus avoiding the redundant evaluation of this particular expression. This use of value caches is sometimes called "call by need", whereas the uncached strategy is called "call by name".
Scheme delay creates a lazy value; (delay <exp>) creates a lazy value which can be forced into a strict value by means of the force expression, which is the left inverse of delay. In other words, (delay (force <exp>))=(delay <exp>), but (force (delay <exp>))=<exp>. Lazy evaluation, e.g., using delay, can be used to create infinite functional data structures, which contradicts one of our major desiderata--that egal always terminate promptly.
Prior to this section, egal has been defined as a strict operation, because it recursively forces its arguments until it has explored enough to determine whether they are indeed the same. The only delays left unforced will occur in arguments that are not identical, and arguments which evaluate to the same expression will be transitively forced.
If we were to implement the Scheme delay and force ourselves, by generating an assignable cache cell in the manner suggested in the Scheme document [Rees86], then we would not achieve the correct semantics unless egal strictly forced its arguments. Otherwise, (egal (delay 3) 3) would not yield true, because the function closure for the delay would not compare egal to the ground number 3. One could modify egal to be slightly less strict if it recursively forced evaluation until it compared two delays. Then, if the delays themselves were identical, which could be determined by comparing their cache cells, then egal could return true without further forcing the expression; otherwise, the delays would have to be further forced. This modification was suggested by Hughes [Hughes85] for use with "lazy memo-functions", which allow certain computations on infinite data structures to terminate.
Since our intention is the provision of a robust object identity predicate for widespread use, rather than for research programming languages, we feel that the efficiency and simplicity of a strict egal is more important than the transparent provision of lazy infinite data structures. Therefore, we suggest that egal remain strict, and those intent on implementing infinite laziness are welcome to do so using explicit assignable cells within an abstract data type. In this way, the lazy memo-functions of [Hughes85] can be readily and efficiently emulated.
Persistent systems [Sandewall75] [Atkinson87] [Atkinson88] [Alagic89] require the logging or journaling of updates to objects, so that a consistent world can be recovered in the case of a crash. Distributed systems require more complexity, because in addition to having to be synchronized, an object must also be localized, and any references to this object which come from places far away from its location will be quite expensive. Although schemes have been described which enable mutable objects to be replicated in many places, these schemes are complicated and expensive; therefore, we will consider only models in which each mutable object has but one location.
We have argued that immutable functional objects have "object identity", but they do not require synchronization because they cannot be modified, and they do not require localization, because they can be replicated at will. As a result, functional objects can be much more efficient than non-functional objects in a distributed system; this is the reason for Cedar's functional strings (called "ropes") [Swinehart86]. For example, if we were to create a list of objects in a distributed Lisp system, traditional Lisp semantics would demand that each list cell have "object identity", because Lisp list cells are mutable. As a result, a function call from one location to another would pass a pointer to this list, and the called function would then have to interrogate each list cell in turn (perhaps using a locking protocol) to acquire references to the listed objects. If, however, our Lisp had functional list cells, we could pass this list by copying it at the time of the function call (in the manner of a "remote procedure call"), and the called function would then have its own private copy of this list after only one interaction with the calling function instead of many. Keeping consistent semantics in this situation is possible only if argument lists are functional.
The efficiency of functional arguments in parallel and distributed systems does not come from either a consistent reference-passing or a consistent copying policy, but from the freedom to do either at any time. The consistent reference policy allows for great efficiency for infrequently referenced or very large objects, while the consistent copying policy allows for great efficiency for frequently referenced and/or small objects. By basing object identity upon an abstract concept like mutability instead of an implementation-dependent concept, we can achieve efficiency in a more portable fashion.
Ada's non-deterministic, non-transparent semantics (by-reference v. copying) for its "in out" parameter-passing mode has the same efficiency goals as our object-identity proposal; Ada, however, must rely on the good intentions of the programmer, because the difference between the two mechanisms is all too evident. Since "the road to hell is paved with good intentions", our scheme does not rely upon them for correct behavior, unlike Ada's "in out" parameter-passing.
Communication per se in a multilingual single-address-space environment is not as big of a problem as protecting one language environment from the other. The differing structure formats of different languages can usually be handled by relatively straight-forward format coercion routines. Much more problematical is the fight between the language run-time systems over the control of storage allocation and control of object identity.
Functional argument structures can reduce interlingual communication costs, just as they do in a distributed environment. Copies of functional objects can be freely made using the recipient language's own storage management system, if necessary, so that no storage management problems arise; functional return values are handled similarly. Of course, if the functional objects are small enough, then no storage need be allocated.
In the case of mutable objects, it is very likely that the different languages have different formats and thus the receiver of an object cannot access it directly. In this case, the sending language can pass the object after it has been encased in a translation container which interprets actions requested by the receiver. This translation container is essentially a function closure or an Algol-60-like "thunk". Thus, even when a mutable object must be passed, the existence of cheap functional objects--argument lists and closures--can still reduce the overall costs.
Unfortunately, the publication of object references creates a substantial "garbage collection" problem in distributed and heterogeneous environments. Since the owner of the object is never sure when the last object reference has been forgotten, he is obliged to keep the referenced object alive indefinitely. We have no elegant solution for this problem, but the aggressive replacement of mutable objects by functional objects can reduce the amount of "persistent garbage" that is created by interlingual communication.
Providing for mostly functional programming in Common Lisp requires the addition of functional list cells and functional arrays. Such provisions simplify many complications of Common Lisp. There are many rules regarding the sharing/non-sharing/modifiability of constants in source code; these rules disappear with the single policy that traditional parenthesized lists and quoted strings READ as functional objects. Making CONS and LIST produce functional list cells, and including a new constructor (WCONS?) for mutable list cells, offers the efficiency of functional lists to the 95+% of instances where lists are used functionally. Of course, EVAL should accept source code only in the form of functional lists; modifiable source code has been considered an anathema for the past 30 years. The problem of whether &REST arguments in argument "lists" are copied or not disappears when &REST arguments become functional.
Functional strings can have interesting implementations. A representation of a string as a tree whose leaves are individual characters offers O(1) complexity concatenation; while element indexing is more expensive, it is usually less common than concatenation.
Functional arrays are known to have performance problems, because a succession of single-element updates may convert a problem of linear complexity into one of quadratic complexity [Bloss89]. Many solutions to these problems have been proposed [Schwartz75ab] [Hudak85] [Hudak86] [Hudak89] [Bloss89] [Baker90a] [Baker91a]. On the other hand, functional array semantics can allow the experimentation with completely new array implementations, such as quad-trees [Wise87]. The incorporation of functional arrays into existing programming languages would allow for the extensive testing of these ideas, while preserving the option of traditional mutable arrays.
The status of primitive similarity predicates that are coarser than EGAL is marginal in a mostly functional language. For example, suppose we wish to compare a mutable character buffer with a constant string. Since these two objects have different types, there is no obvious mechanism to compare the two, and they might have different representations. The language could offer a primitive coercion from a mutable character vector into a functional string, which could then be compared for equality. Any other similarity primitive would be an attempt to optimize this two-step process.
There are two orthogonal issues in argument-passing semantics: evaluation ordering (e.g., "eager" versus "lazy"), and "object identity". Unfortunately, these two issues interact in very complex ways in non-functional languages, and this interaction has produced a great deal of confusion. Evaluation ordering is well-defined and relatively well-understood, because it can be studied in the context of the functional lambda calculus which has well-defined and precise semantics. However, the "object identity" issues have not been well-understood, precisely because they are intimately tied up with the side-effects introduced in non-functional languages.
We claim that the only argument-passing model that is consistent in non-functional languages is call-by-object-reference, i.e., passing object identities. Exactly when this object identity is determined relative to the computation inside the called function is the issue of evaluation order, but what this object identity means should always be well-defined. Our model offers a seamless integration of functional and imperative programming, because if an argument is functional, it will be passed by value, and if it is mutable, it will be passed by "reference". Any other argument-passing model involves an implicit coercion of mutable objects or mutable components into their values, and the timing of this coercion may be difficult to determine or control. For example, the coercion semantics of EQUAL applied to standard, mutable list cells is best described as "lazy coercion to value", where only the portion of the argument examined is actually "coerced". The complexity of such gradual coercions is one of the main reasons for our rejection of the traditional argument-passing approach.
Lisp is sometimes characterized as "call-by-value", but this is incorrect. Lisp approximates call-by-object-reference semantics extremely well, and the single lacuna can be easily repaired. The reason Lisp appears to be call-by-value is that arguments which are functional data structures appear to have been passed in toto. However, it is the nature of functional data structures that whether they are passed by value or by reference is not determinable, hence we consider these data structures to have been passed by "object reference".
"Call-by-value" coerces arguments into their "values", which causes mutable portions of a structure to be replaced by their current values; Lisp does not usually do this. The single exception is caused by variables, which are made variable by SETQ. If we make variable binding permanent, then we can eliminate this exception. SETQ of global variables is trivially replaced by SET of the quoted variable, while SETQ of local variables can be eliminated through "cell introduction" for mutable local variables, discussed in several sections above. After these changes, the binding of all lambda variables is constant (although they are sometimes bound to mutable cells), and argument-passing becomes completely uniform. Of course, when cells are introduced for mutable lambda variables, any variable instances--including those in argument lists--are replaced by expressions which access the cell's value, thus making any coercion explicit.
Type systems are usually constructed starting from a small set of primitive types--boolean, character, IEEE-single-float--and building up utilizing products (record structures and arrays), sums (unions) and functions. Any finite type expression built in this way can be "easily" compared for type equivalence using structural equivalence, although comparing unordered union types with less than quadratic complexity requires some sophistication. Equivalence problems arise in two areas: recursive types and abstract data types. Recursive types cause problems because their proper description requires either infinite type expressions, or type expressions with directed cycles [Aho86,s.6.3]. In either case, the obvious simple recursive structural equivalence algorithm will fail. Abstract data types cause problems because they are supposed to be opaque; i.e., equivalence should depend only upon the identity of the abstract data type itself, and not upon whatever representation is currently being used to implement it [Guttag77].
Regardless of their theoretical problems, recursive data types are handled in the following way by Pascal, C, Ada, etc. The programmer first declares that the recursive type is a type (we have purposely fuzzed the distinction between "type" and "type name"), but gives no details; then he uses the type to construct another type. Finally, he gives the full definition of the recursive type. Inside of the Pascal, C, Ada, etc., compiler, it is obvious what is happening. A new type node is defined, but its contents are not filled in. This type node is referenced by one or more other type nodes. Finally, the type node is updated with the full definition of the type. We notice two things about this implementation of recursive types: a recursive type involves a true directed cycle in the type definition data structure, and building a recursive type involves a side-effect (assignment) on the type definition data structure. Directed cycles cannot be built without side-effects, and conversely, side-effects are only needed to build these cycles, because non-cyclic types can be built in a functional manner.
Abstract data types are handled in a similar way by Eiffel, Ada, etc. The programmer first declares the specification of the data type, which involves giving it a name. Later in the compilation, linking or execution, the datatype is associated with an implementation, which provides a representation for the datatype. Since a user of the abstract data type is not allowed to know the implementation of the datatype, because it is opaque, it cannot know its representation, and therefore it cannot perform structural equivalence. Inside the Eiffel, Ada, etc., compiler, it is obvious what is happening. A new type node is defined, but its contents are not filled in. This type node is referenced by one or more other type nodes. Finally, the type node is updated with the full definition of the type when the implementation is given. We notice that an abstract data type seems to involve a side-effect on the type system when the implementation is finally given, and this side-effect seems to be inherent in the notion of abstract data type, since abstract data types can be given new implementations.
We make the claim that recursive data types for persistent languages with the type TYPE are most naturally defined as abstract data types whose implementation depends upon the abstract data type itself. In other words, since we wish to provide abstract data types anyway, and since the abstract data type provides us with the side-effect we need to achieve recursive type circularity, we might as well enjoy the conceptual simplicity this scheme provides. There is then no need for complex structural equivalence algorithms for recursive types, as is required for Algol-68, because the cycles in all recursive types are now broken by an abstract data type which must compare identically. Furthermore, the intermediate states involved in building a recursive data type are usually visible from a parallel process in a parallel/distributed/persistent system having explicit type objects, in which case the type will display its mutability, and therefore may as well be an abstract data type.
In summary, we have described a type system which provides a small set of primitive immutable types (boolean, bit, etc.), a small set of primitive type constructors (product, sum, function, etc.), an operation to create a new, mutable opaque type (not to be confused with a Milner-style type variable [Milner78]), and an operation to assign a mutable type a type-expression value. Given this type system, the type identity/type equivalence problem is solved by the straight-forward application of our EGAL equality predicate. Type values are finite trees which are constructed from leaves which are either immutable atomic types (boolean, bit, etc.) or mutable opaque types. The backbones of these trees are immutable structures (product, sum, etc.). EGAL performs structural equivalence down to the leaves, which compare for identity.
The difference between languages with structural type equivalence and languages with name type equivalence is now clear. Languages with structural type equivalence (e.g., Algol-68) use a permanent binding of names to type values, so that the type comparison recurses through the type name. Languages with name type equivalence (e.g., Ada) use an assignable binding of names to type values, so that the type comparison stops at the type name. By forcing recursive types to be abstract data types, Ada could dispense with a whole set of rules and restrictions for "incomplete types", which are used in Ada to construct recursive types.
Our assertion that type identity is intimately bound up with the mutability of an abstract data type is essentially a modal concept. Modal logic [Hughes68] deals with the notions of "possibility" and "necessity", and Kripke models of these logics utilize the notions of "multiple worlds", where "possibility" is intimately related to "accessibility" of other worlds. A data type is thus abstract if we can "conceive of" multiple implementations of it; i.e., if there exist worlds accessible from the current world in which the implementation differs. In modal "dynamic logic" of programs [Pratt79], accessibility is achieved through one or more assignment statements, so it should be possible to unite these two concepts. This modal notion of abstract data types is closely related to the "existential" notion of abstract data type espoused by [Cardelli85] and [Mitchell88].
EGAL avoids the confusion between abstract and concrete objects by its
first clause which requires that the datatypes themselves be EGAL.
Since an abstract datatype itself includes a mutable cell which carries the
type's identity, it is this cell which is compared when abstract datatypes are
compared. An object of the abstract type can be "opened up" to reveal its
representation, which is another object of another--usually
concrete--type. By requiring the conjunction of abstract type equivalence and
concrete representation equivalence, EGAL will distinguish between
abstract objects which may be abstractly equivalent, but have different
representations--perhaps as the result of a new implementation of the abstract
type having been instantiated. Although this equivalence may be finer than we
might desire, at least it will not lead to contradictions.
(defun egal-abstract-type (x y)
(and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y))
(egal (representation x) (representation y))))
We would now like to be able to overload EGAL for abstract data types
in a way that provides a more abstract equality, but does not compromise
EGAL's basic principles. If the proper overloading of EGAL
can be automatically derived from the other information given in defining the
abstract data type, then EGAL's nature will be preserved. We can
derive the requirements for abstract EGAL through a number of
Rule I. Two abstract objects can be EGAL only if they have the same (abstract) data type.
Rule II. EGAL operating on abstract objects (abstract EGAL) cannot be finer than EGAL operating on their representations (representational EGAL). This rule also guarantees that abstract EGAL is reflexive.
Rule III. Abstract EGAL must be symmetric. A smart compiler could check this condition at compile time by comparing the given user code to the user code with its parameters reversed; if the two are equivalent, then the user code is symmetric.
Rule IV. Abstract EGAL must be transitive. A smart compiler could check this condition at compile time by noticing when the abstraction calls another predicate which is already known to be transitive--e.g., if it calls EGAL on component values.
Some of the above rules can be easily enforced by inserting any user definition
for EGAL into the following prototype:
(defun abstract-egal (x y)
(and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y)) ; Rule I.
(or (egal (representation x)
(representation y)) ; Rule II.
(let ((user-egal (get-egal (type-of x))))
(or (funcall user-egal x y)
(funcall user-egal y x)) ; Rule III.
...)))) ; other Rules.
Unfortunately, the requirement for transitivity cannot be so easily guaranteed.
For example, the transitivity of the grade-school cross-product rule for
comparing rational numbers depends upon deep properties of integer
multiplication--associativity, commutivity and cancellation. If one is
preparing "mission-critical" or "standards-quality" abstract data types, it
might be reasonable to ask for a mathematical proof of transitivity before
allowing the compilation of a user EGAL definition. Under normal
conditions, however, this would be impractical. Short of a mathematical proof,
we can achieve some assurance from the prototype above; we believe this
approach preferable to the approach of many "object-oriented" languages which
allow any behavior of an identity predicate whatsoever.
An even more difficult case is that of an abstract object whose specification claims the object to be immutable, but whose representation utilizes mutable objects and benevolent side-effects. The most obvious example is that of the use of a reference to RAM storage to represent a functional object (e.g., a Lisp bignum); traditional abstract datatype systems handle this situation by protecting the object from outside access either intentionally, through the published operations, or unintentionally, by clobbering storage through wild pointers. A more sophisticated example is the use of benevolent side-effects to improve the performance of functional arrays through shallow binding [Baker91b] (also called trailers [Bloss89]). If the implementation is flawed in some way that allows the internal state to become visible, then havoc will result. Proofs of immutable behavior are even more difficult than in the rational number case, above, although work is progressing on type systems that can automatically check simple cases [Gifford86] [Lucassen87].
As a result of these problems, we recommend that EGAL remain a simple,
reliable, decidable predicate which compares types and representations, as in
the following code. While EGAL will sometimes provide a finer
equivalence relation than the abstract one desired, it cannot cause
embarrassment due to violation of the basic rules of object identity, because
it tests for identity as preserved by the basic value transmission operations
of the programming language.. Furthermore, this EGAL is consistent
with the earlier definition of EGAL on closures, which are often used
to implement abstract data types (this consistency can be seen by equating the
notion of an abstract type object with the notion of the code for a closure).
Systems defining abstract datatypes might consider providing a new "generic"
predicate that defaults to EGAL for primitive datatypes and can be
overloaded for user-defined abstract datatypes; this generic predicate would
then be used for table lookup routines such as assoc, member,
etc., instead of passing an equality predicate as an argument.
(defun egal (x y)
(and (egal (type-of x) (type-of y))
(cond ((abstract-type-p (type-of x))
(egal (representation x) (representation y)))
<< the other clauses for egal, as before. >>
McCarthy's Lisp language[McCarthy60] clearly demonstrated his understanding of side-effect semantics for object identity through his use of "mark bits" in a mark-sweep garbage collector. His EQ function was restricted to work only on atomic (non-structured objects), and his recursive EQUAL function worked correctly for all objects because his cons cells were immutable. His followers forgot to re-examine the situation, however, once RPLACA and RPLACD had been introduced into Lisp, perhaps for reasons of compatibility.
[Steele78,39-43] came tantalizingly close to drawing our conclusion: "The concept of side effect is inseparable from the notion of equality/identity/sameness", and later: "the only way one can determine that two objects are the same is to perform a side effect on one and look for an appropriate change in the behavior of the other". This quote makes inexplicable the later conclusion of the ANSI Common Lisp committee, of which Steele was a member, that "object equality is not a concept for which there is a uniquely determined correct algorithm" [Steele90,p.109]. The radical consequences of the obvious conclusion were apparently too much for either Steele or the ANSI committee to accept--that there were two different kinds of list cells, mutable and immutable, with coercions between them, and recognizing this might have sacrificed upwards compatibility.
Common Lisp [Steele84] [Steele90] defines the predicates EQ, EQL, EQUAL, EQUALP, which are listed in fine-to-coarse order. In addition, Common Lisp offers "=", which is EQUALP restricted to numbers. EQ essentially compares pointers, while EQL relaxes EQ and allows functional objects like characters and numbers to be correctly compared. EQUAL structurally compares conses, strings and bit-vectors, while EQUALP structurally compares all vectors and fuzzes upper/lowercase character distinctions. Unfortunately, Common Lisp arrays cannot be defined as "read-only", so functional arrays (including functional strings and bit-vectors) cannot be defined. Common Lisp does allow for "read-only" components of structures, but EQUAL does not decompose structures and EQUALP decomposes all structures.
Scheme [Rees86] defines the predicates eq?, eqv? and equal?. eq? is essentially pointer comparison (Common Lisp's EQ), while eqv? is a crude attempt at achieving "operational equivalence", which is not at all well-defined; eqv? is approximately the same as Common Lisp's EQL, except on functional closures. Finally, equal? is Scheme's approximation to Common Lisp's EQUALP, since it approximates structural equivalence. While Scheme allows for eqv? to implement our version of EGAL, it does not require it, and we are not aware of any Scheme which follows our semantics.
Goto [Goto74] [Goto76] researched the notion of "hash consing" (invented by Ershov for common subexpression detection [Ershov58]) which provided an efficient implementation of EQUAL for functional cons cells. However, we are more interested here in the fact that he provides a separate datatype for functional cons cells than in the fact that they can be efficiently compared. He provides the same semantics for EQ that we do for EGAL, but accomplishes this by forcing the "uniquizing" of functional cons cells so that the existing EQ works correctly. We, on the other hand, do not constrain the implementation of EGAL, but allow EGAL to handle non-uniquized functional cons cells.
MacLisp [Moon74] was the first Lisp to provide stack-allocated numbers which became "first-class", when they escaped the boundaries of dynamic extents [Steele77]. As a result, EQ for numbers became problematical, since numbers could be moved without notice, and these techniques resulted in Common Lisp's EQL predicate. This paper can be considered a generalization of this EQL technique to all functional objects. The generalization of the stack-allocation techniques of Maclisp to arbitrary objects is considered in [Baker92a]. MacLisp also had a function PURCOPY, which coerced its argument into an immutable form for sharing among processes in a time-sharing system. MacLisp had no predicates to distinguish pure from impure objects, however.
AutoLISP [Autodesk88] is the only Lisp we know of which offers only functional strings and functional cons cells. Unfortunately, it is not pure, because it offers SETQ. String and cons cell functionality is not the result of theoretical considerations, but the result of swapping objects to disk using PRINT and READ. This is because any side-effects (e.g., sharing) to non-atoms are forgotten when the object is swapped in.
Parallelizing Lisp has been the subject of much research. [Baker77] introduces the concepts of eager evaluation and futures; MultiLisp [Halstead84] [Halstead85] implements and studies these concepts in great detail. ParaTran [Katz86] [Tinker88] utilizes the ideas of "time warp" to synchronize sequential Scheme on a parallel processor. QLisp [Gabriel84] introduces futures into Common Lisp. [Larus89] investigates aliasing in Lisp data structures, while [Harrison88] suggests new--more functional--list structures for Lisp in a parallel processing environment. Parallel Lisp constructs for SIMD architectures are considered in [Hillis85] and [Steele86].
Smalltalk [Goldberg83] [Digitalk88] has two equality predicates--"==", for "object identity", and "=", for "equality". Smalltalk's "==" is roughly Lisp's EQ, while Smalltalk's "=" (on built-in classes) is roughly Lisp's EQUALP, which descends into objects regardless of their mutability. Smalltalk intends "=" to be an equivalence relation coarser than "==", but a programmer can define "=" to mean anything at all, including "not ==". Smalltalk has no notion of functional objects which can be compared extensionally.
Prolog [Warren77] implicitly assumes the existence of object identity and an object identity predicate for the operation of its unification algorithm. Since most Prologs are "pure"--no side-effects to data structures--the proper definition of object identity has never been an issue. However, recent attempts to integrate Prolog-like mechanisms into (impure) Lisp [Robinson82] and Scheme [Ruf89] require a more precise notion of object identity; e.g., [Ruf89] incorrectly uses eq? rather than eqv?.
Algol-68 [vanWijngaarden77] is apparently the first standard language to rigorously separate the concepts of "value" and "name" (" mode ref" ~ "assignable cell"), which model has been followed most closely by ML. Algol-68 provides the object identity predicate ":=:" only for two name/refs, which compares the names themselves for identity, not the currently-assigned values [vanWijngaarden77,5.2.2]; any attempt to compare a name to a value yields a compile-time error, since a name/ref does not have the same mode/type as a value. The "=" operator is initially overloaded only for the arithmetic, boolean and character types, but the programmer must overload "=" himself for any other type. Algol-68 does not have abstract data types, but does allow for recursively defined types which must be extensionally compared, thereby producing the complexity traditionally associated with Algol-68 type equivalence.
CLU [Liskov77] has a concept of object identity which is similar to ours, in that it distinguishes mutable from immutable objects. CLU defines mutability relative to the operations supplied by the programmer of an abstract data type, however, making immutability substantially more difficult to prove [Bloom76]. CLU also allows for the definition of recursively defined types "without explicit reference types" [Liskov77]; however, the example given in that paper contradicts this assertion through its use of assignment. Herlihy [Herlihy82] describes a mechanism for changing the representation of an abstract "value" during transmission in CLU, and uses the notion of "value equality" to determine the fidelity of this transmission. Unfortunately, the definition of value equality is left up to the particular abstract datatype, and this predicate does not have to be an equivalence relation--e.g., his example of floating-point numbers and rectangular/polar complex numbers uses closeness instead of equality. While Herlihy uses the term "call-by-value", he actually describes "call-by-object-reference" (although he uses the term "name" instead of "object reference"), because true call-by-value wouldn't care about sharing and cycles. Finally, his attempts to preserve sharing and cycles are not well-defined, because he does not acknowledge the mutability of "names", even though his implementation works exactly like a copying garbage collector, including the updating of forwarding pointers stored in the name-to-object "maps". Since the object identity of these "names" is not preserved outside a single run of a particular program, he underestimates the real costs of full object identity in a persistent database.
ML [Harper86] has a notion of equality very similar to ours. "On references [assignable cells], equality means identity; on objects of other types ..., it is defined recursively in the natural way" [Harper86,s.7.2]. ML makes no attempt to compare function closures, however, even when they simulate data structures. Ohori [Ohori90] makes the case that ML references (cells) are the most appropriate means for introducing object identity into a pure functional language.
C [ANSI-C] has only a single predicate "==" which acts like Common Lisp EQ. C "==" requires the objects being compared to be either arithmetic values (including character values) or pointers. C accesses arrays only through pointers, so C "==" does not descend into the contents of arrays. Since C does not define "==" for structures, it finesses the issue of how best to compare them. C approximates the notion of a functional object through the "const noalias" declaration, which can be applied to structure components; C "==" does not cope with this declaration, however, because pointer comparison compares addresses. C++ [Stroustrup86] follows C, but allows "==" to be overloaded. There are no requirements on user-supplied definitions for "=="; in fact, "!=" could be defined as equality and vice versa.
Ada [Ada83] has a single predicate "=" which acts like Common Lisp EQUALP because it recurses on the components of structures and the elements of arrays. Ada "=" does not descend through pointers, however, so it cannot run into the possible circularity of EQUALP. Object identity for accessed objects is determined by address, which is consistent, because Ada does not allow the declaration of constant (non-assignable) aggregate components. Since "=" compares the contents of aggregate variable components, "=" is not referentially transparent. "=" in Ada is not easily overloaded, and since the functionality of an aggregate structure is not encoded in its type and cannot be determined by the program at run-time, it is difficult to implement our EGAL semantics.
While one cannot declare a component of an Ada object immutable ("constant"), one can declare an "entire" object constant. Unfortunately, if one compares two pointers to such constant objects, the pointers are not dereferenced in the comparison--i.e., they are compared intensionally instead of extensionally. In a noble attempt at cleanliness, Ada restricts formal mode "in" parameters of subprograms to be "read-only". This restriction is an attempt to convey the notion that arguments are coerced into immutable values before being passed as arguments. Unfortunately, this restriction is independent of the arguments, and does not extend to pointer-dereferencing. Ada's read-only parameters thus cause more confusion than they resolve.
Ada retains the notion of "mode" from Algol-68, but separates it from the notion of "type". Ada modes are orthogonal to Ada types, and apply only to parameter-passing. Although one can utilize Ada's "in out" mode to partially preserve object identity for variables (Ada's mutable objects) [Baker91a], object identity in Ada is generally preserved only for "access" types--i.e., Algol-68/ML references, i.e., pointers. Much of Ada's complexity in semantics and implementation is a result of its unwise decision to separate modes from types, and from its attempt to emulate "cache coherency" itself in software using mode "in out".
Hewitt's Actor systems [Atkinson77] [Hewitt78] [Agha86] incorporate the notion of "serialized" and "unserialized" actors. Actors with state are serialized, while functional actors need not be serialized. Serialized actors and unserialized actors correspond roughly to objects with "object identity" and functional objects, respectively. The discrete linear time ordering required of any actor with internal state [Hewitt78] is essence of "serializability", required for (cache) coherence.
MacLennan [MacLennan82] [MacLennan85] independently provides arguments quite similar to ours for a notion of object identity essentially the same as ours. He does not, however, consider the equality problem for function closures.
Gifford [Gifford86] has been examining the inclusion of side-effect information into type systems. He has not examined the issue of object identity, but his type systems should be capable of providing the information necessary to implement our EGAL predicate.
Linda [Carriero89] utilizes a pattern-matched database of structured values ("tuples") for communication among independent processes in an MIMD parallel processing environment. A Linda tuple is a functional data structure which can have additional structures as components. Tuples are not recursive and are compared recursively--i.e., tuples are finite functional objects, and Linda has no mutable objects other than the global database itself.
Relational data base theory has the concepts of "key", "primary key", "functional dependency" and "normalization". Functional dependencies can be operationally exposed through "update anomalies" which occur when functional dependencies are violated. Update anomalies can be minimized through normalization, which factors the relations according to their functional dependencies. Normalization attempts to whittle an object's identity down to its "primary key", while we grow the object identity to include all of its functional dependencies. Immutable relations cannot be updated, however, and therefore cannot be used to detect update anomalies and functional dependencies. Since these functional dependencies can all be viewed as immutable attributes of the object (whether direct attributes or transitive attributes dependent upon an immutable direct attribute), the inclusion of all of these attributes as part of the object cannot cause an inconsistency. The essence of our argument, when rephrased in relational data base terminology, is that whether immutable relations are normalized can't be determined through update anomalies, and hence can't matter.
Vianu's conception of "object identity" [Vianu88] seems identical to ours, although it is couched in the form of relational algebra rather than in the form of object-oriented programming. Earlier work [Lyngbaek87], however, separated the world into "literal" (i.e., functional/immutable) objects and "non-literal" (i.e., objects with "true" object identity).
Our discussions have revealed the EQ/EQUAL problem to be a straight-forward typing error. Applying EQ to a functional list or applying EQUAL to a mutable list are type errors of the same sort as applying a floating-point equality predicate to two integers. That mutability has not previously been considered an important issue in programming language typing must be the result of an artificially low price on the assignment operation in von Neumann architectures.
Our primitive EGAL predicate is the coarsest predicate consistent with object identity, and therefore EGAL should be the finest equality predicate primitive in a language. In this way, many inconsistencies and anomalies disappear, including some especially troubling ones involving hash tables and property lists. Our notion of object identity provides a firm foundation for the introduction of immutable list cells, immutable arrays and strings, and immutable structures into modern programming languages, including Common Lisp. These immutable objects immediately solve many problems which have troubled language standards committees; for example, many of the problems of "typing for declaration" and "typing for discrimination" [Steele90,p.53] stem from imprecise object identity. Immutable objects can also lead to improved performance in persistent, parallel and distributed execution environments.
Our notion of object identity provides for a clean semantics of argument-passing and value-returning, eliminating many ad hoc and confusing rules with a single notion--call-by-object-reference. Call-by-object-reference is precise, and is robust when used in persistent, parallel and distributed systems.
By providing a better understanding of object identity and its costs, we hope to advance the cause of "mostly functional programming" [Knight86], which tries to reduce the number of "gratuitous" side-effects. Mostly functional programming results in higher efficiencies in persistent, parallel and distributed processing environments because logging, communication and synchronization costs are reduced.
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 "Functional objects" is triply overloaded, meaning immutable objects, function closures or objects with functional dependencies.
Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose--Alphonse Karr, as translated in [Cohen60,p.214].
Object identity can be grafted onto a relational system through the use of a "time stamp" or equivalent attribute. This "attribute" is variously called an oid, a surrogate, an l-value, or an object identifier [Abiteboul89].
Any value-transmission operation that does not preserve object identity is therefore an implicit coercion. Since implicit coercions are some of the more error-prone features of programming languages [DoD78,3B] [Radin78], we propose that coercions in the basic value transmitting operations of programming languages be eliminated.
[Ohori89] states that different invocations of mutable constructors are guaranteed to produce distinct results.
Mason's defined:eq [Mason86,p.66] uses the same technique. McCarthy's original "recursive functions" paper [McCarthy60] explicitly makes EQ undefined for cons cells, where the term "undefined" to the recursion theorist typically means "diverges" or "loops". McCarthy's paper also describes a garbage collection algorithm which twiddles an object's mark bit, thereby demonstrating the use of side-effects to define object identity.
Garbage collectors have never trusted equality predicates to determine object identity, but have always used side-effect semantics; that's what "mark bits" and "reference counts" are for! A garbage collector can be built which utilizes an equality predicate instead of a mark bit--e.g., by using a hash table instead of a mark bit--but such a garbage collector would likely be slow. We argue later that a garbage collector can sometimes achieve increased performance by not preserving an identity predicate finer than the egal predicate defined later.
McCarthy's EQUAL function [McCarthy60] applies only to immutable cons cells, and within that context, his EQUAL meets our requirements. He purposely crippled EQ (hence its name) to apply only to non-cons cells. EQ does not meet our requirements for object identity for pure cons cells because in most Lisp systems (EQ (CONS x y) (CONS x y)) yields false--i.e., CONS is not a function.
Steele reports that the ANSI Common Lisp committee concluded that "object equality is not a concept for which there is a uniquely determined correct algorithm" [Steele90,p.109]. This paper suggests otherwise.
MacLisp [Moon74] numbers were allocated in this fashion, but small integers were "uniquized" with a table.
Dereferencing can be avoided, allowing EQ to be universally used for comparing numbers, if all numbers are uniquized. Uniquization is the same process whereby symbols which are spelled the same are required to point to the same address, and hence be the same object. However, uniquization for arbitrary numbers has traditionally been found to be more expensive than dereferencing.
Interlisp's setn primitive allows for unspeakable violence to numbers; its use is reserved for those who mutilate Fortran's call-by-reference constants by the light of the full moon.
This superfine distinction can be embarrassing, as Common Lisp is allowed to copy numbers whenever it feels the urge [Steele90,p.104]. The noise often heard when this kind of bug is discovered is "eek!".
The term "rope" is curious; presumably functional ropes are "lighter-weight" than mutable strings. "Thread" would have been a better choice, but that term was already taken. "Filament" might have been the best choice. Common Lisp keywords are rough analogues to Cedar ropes.
Either IEEE = is not an identity predicate or IEEE atan is not a function, because 0.0=-0.0, but atan(0.0,-0.0)!=atan(-0.0,-0.0); due to this and other reasons, IEEE -0.0 is an algebraic abomination.
Some compilers perform the "optimization" of sharing environment structures among closures [Kranz86], even though this optimization may cause a form of "storage leak", wherein the extraneous objects avoid garbage collection [Baker92a].
We later argue that Lisp source code should be functional; in this case, source code which prints the same will compare the same, i.e., be EGAL.
Modern Lisps offer a more compact, but humanly-unreadable I/O format called "FASL" format (don't ask), which also attempts to handle sharing and cycles. FASL format also fails to respect object identity, however.
The text of Autolisp interpreted user functions [Autodesk88] is often swapped to and from disk using PRINT and READ; the efficacy of this scheme depends upon the immutability of Autolisp cons cells and character strings.
This is called the "coalescing of constants" problem [Steele90,p.691-4].
Given the availability of defstruct, perhaps primitive mutable list cells are obsolete.
Whether type checking is performed statically during compilation or dynamically during execution is irrelevant for our purposes.
In simple cases these steps may be performed within a single type definition, but these rarely occur [Baker80].
We purposely ignore the Common Lisp Object System [Steele90,ch.28], because the types it introduces are not completely opaque, and hence they are not true abstract data types. For example, the slot structure of a type can be ascertained by examining its "class precedence list".
The new data type itself is the key issue for us; we ignore any operation signatures also given that refer to the new datatype.
This updating involves a bit of checking to make sure that the operation signatures match, but these details do not change the side-effect nature of providing an implementation for an abstract data type.
In an analogous situation, the internal side-effects involved in the implementation of Scheme's letrec can be exposed using continuations, allowing a functional subset of Scheme to emulate side-effectable cells! [Bawden88].
A smart compiler can often optimize out this second call to user-egal which guarantees symmetry.
We note that this EGAL prototype does not conform to the usual object-oriented dispatching mechanisms (e.g., Smalltalk and Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) [Steele90,ch.28]), because we do not call the specific user function first. In CLOS, EGAL would be a non-generic function which eventually called the specific user function.
The idea of mark-sweep garbage collection is at least 4,000 years old; the Jewish holiday Passover celebrates the effectiveness of the first distributed marking algorithm against a particularly deadly sweeping algorithm [Exodus12:23-27].
The recent incorporation of CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) into Common Lisp requires the precise definition of object identity, because CLOS generic functions can "dispatch" on particular objects (using EQL).
[Moon89] suggests that "the Common Lisp function EQL compares two object references and returns true if they refer to the same object". While Moon's statement is usually correct, most people mistakenly read the "if" as though it said "if and only if".
Curiously, [Rees86] defines operational equivalence for mutable structured objects, but not for immutable (functional) structured objects, and hence operational equivalence is ill-defined.